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Welcome to the 2018 Systematic Reviews by Critical Care Nutrition
We have reviewed 51 topics on critical care nutrition. We have included all RCTs of nutritional interventions involving critically ill patients examining clinically important outcomes published since 1980. The included studies have undergone a formal review by our review committee and provide the latest and best summaries of evidence in the various areas of critical care nutrition.

Systematic reviews were made available in December 2018 and January 2019. Refer to the topics below for a full list of the topics and for links to the available systematic reviews.

We are currently working on a 2020 update of the systematic reviews. We hope to have them available by mid-year.

Review Committee:
Dr. Daren Heyland, MD

Summary of Changes (2015 CPGs vs 2018 Systematic Reviews)

2018 Systematic Reviews, by topic

   1.0   The use of Enteral Nutrition vs Parenteral Nutrition 
   2.0   Early vs. Delayed Nutrient Intake
   3.1   Indirect calorimetry vs. Predictive equations (Enteral Nutrition) 
   3.2   Achieving Target Dose of Enteral Nutrition  
   3.3a   Trophic vs Full Feeds  
   3.3b   Hypocaloric EN
   4.1a   Composition of EN: Diets with arginine and other nutrients
   4.1b(i)   Composition of EN: Fish oils, borage oils, & antioxidants
   4.1b(ii)   Composition of EN: Fish oils alone
   4.1c   Composition of EN: Immune Enhancing diets - Glutamine
   4.1d   Composition of EN: Immune Enhancing Diets - Ornithine KetoGlutarate (OKG)
   4.2a   Composition of EN: CHO/Fat: High fat/Low CHO
   4.2b   Composition of EN: CHO/Fat: Low fat/High CHO
   4.2c   Composition of EN: High Protein vs. Low Protein
   4.2d   Composition of EN: Fat Modified 
   4.3   Composition of EN: Protein/peptides
   4.4   Composition of EN: pH
   4.5   Fibre
   5.1   Feeding Protocols
   5.2a   Use of Motility Agents
   5.2b   Motility Agents vs Intestinal Feeding 
   5.3   Small Bowel vs. Gastric Feeding
   5.4   Body Position
   5.5   Gastric Residual Volumes (GRVs)
   5.6   Discarding Gastric Residual Volumes (GRVs)
   5.7   Fasting
   6.1   Closed vs. Open Systems
   6.2   Enteral Nutrition: Prebiotics/Probiotics/Synbiotics
   6.3   Enteral Nutrition: Continuous vs. Other Methods of Administration
   6.4   Enteral Nutrition: Gastrostomy vs. Nasogastric Feeding
   6.5   Enteral Nutrition: HMB
   7.1   Combination EN + PN (coming soon)
   7.2   Early vs. Delayed Supplemental PN
   8.0   Parenteral Nutrition vs. Standard Care
   9.1   Composition of PN: Branched Chain Amino Acids
   9.2   Composition of PN: Type of lipids
   9.3   Composition of PN: Zinc (alone or in combination) 
   9.4a   Composition of PN: Glutamine Supplementation
   9.4b   Composition of PN: Glutamine Supplementation + EN Supplementation
   9.4c   Composition of PN: EN + PN Glutamine
   9.5   Composition of PN: Protein and Amino Acids
   10.1   Strategies to Optimize Parenteral Nutrition: Dose of PN
   10.2   Use of lipids 
   10.3   Mode of lipid delivery  
   10.4a   Optimal glucose control: Insulin therapy
   10.4b   Optimal glucose control: Carbohydrate restricted formula + insulin therapy
   11.1   Antioxidant Nutrients: Combined Vitamins and Trace Elements 
   11.2   Antioxidant Nutrients: Parenteral Selenium (alone or in combination) 
   11.3   Vitamin C
   12.0   Vitamin D 
   13.0   Thiamine 


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