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Critical Care Nutrition at the Clinical Evaluation Research Unit (CERU)

is dedicated to improving nutrition therapies in the critically ill through knowledge generation, synthesis, and translation. We engage in a broad range of research activities and promote a culture of best practices in critical care nutrition. Ultimately, this will result in improved clinical outcomes for critically ill patients and increased efficiencies to our health care systems.


A randomized trial of supplemental parenteral nutrition in underweight and overweight critically ill patients: the TOP-UP pilot trial.

Crit Care 2017: Wischmeyer PE, Hasselmann M, Kummerlen C, Kozar R, Kutsogiannis DJ, Karvellas CJ, Besecker B, Evans DK, Preiser JC, Gramlich L, Jeejeebhoy K, Dhaliwal R, Jiang X, Day AG, Heyland DK.

Greater Protein and Energy Intake May Be Associated With Improved Mortality in Higher Risk Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter, Multinational Observational Study

CCM 2017: Charlene Compher, PhD, RD, CNSC, FASPEN; Jesse Chittams, MS; Therese Sammarco, MS; Michele Nicolo, MS, RD, CNSC; Daren K. Heyland, MD, MSc, FRCPC

What Is 'Best Achievable' Practice in Implementing the Enhanced Protein-Energy Provision via the Enteral Route Feeding Protocol in Intensive Care Units in the United States? Results of a Multicenter, Quality Improvement Collaborative

JPEN 2016: Daren K. Heyland, MD, MSc; Margot Lemieux, RD; Lin Shu, MS, RD; Kristen Quisenberry, RD, LD, CNSC; and Andrew G. Day, MSc

Existing equations to estimate lean body mass are not accurate in the critically ill: Results of a multicenter observational study

Clinical Nutrition 2016: Lesley L. Moisey, Marina Mourtzakis, Rosemary A. Kozar, Charlene Compher, Daren K. Heyland

Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Critical Care 2016: lke G, van Zanten AR, Lemieux M, McCall M, Jeejeebhoy KN, Kott M, Jiang X, Day AG, Heyland DK

Validation of Bedside Ultrasound of Muscle Layer Thickness of the Quadriceps in the Critically Ill Patient (VALIDUM Study): A Prospective Multicenter Study.

JPEN 2016: Paris et al.

Still a Place for Metoclopramide as a Prokinetic Drug in Critically Ill Patients?

JPEN 2015: van Zanten AR, van der Meer YG, Venhuizen WA, Heyland DK

Consequences of the REDOXS and METAPLUS Trials: The End of an Era of Glutamine and Antioxidant Supplementation for Critically Ill Patients?

JPEN 2015: van Zanten AR, Hofman Z, Heyland DK

Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?

Nutr Clin Pract 2015: Elke G, Felbinger TW, Heyland DK

Identifying critically-ill patients who will benefit most from nutritional therapy: Further validation of the "modified NUTRIC" nutritional risk assessment tool

Clin Nutr 2015: Rahman A, Hasan RM, Agarwala R, Martin C, Day AG, Heyland DK

The Association between Nutritional Adequacy and Long-Term Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Crit Care Med 2015: Wei X, Day A, Ouellette-Kuntz H, Heyland DK

Clinical Outcomes Related to Protein Delivery in a Critically Ill Population: A Multicenter, Multinational Observation Study.

JPEN 2015: Nicolo M, Heyland DK, Chittams J, Sammarco T, Compher C

Fish Oil-Containing Emulsions: When Fat Seems to Improve Clinical Outcomes in the Critically Ill.

JPEN 2015: Manzanares W, Langlois PL, Lemieux M, Heyland DK

Safety of Prolonged Use of Trophic Feeds in the Critically Ill Patient: It Depends on the Nutrition Risk of the Patient!

JPEN 2015: Heyland DK

Adequate enteral protein intake is inversely associated with 60-d mortality in critically ill children: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study

Am J Clin Nutr 2015: Mehta NM, Bechard LJ, Zurakowski D, Duggan CP, Heyland DK

Metabolic and nutritional support of critically ill patients: consensus and controversies

Crit Care 2015: Preiser JC, van Zanten AR, Berger MM, Biolo G, Casaer MP, Doig GS, Griffiths RD, Heyland DK, Hiesmayr M, Iapichino G, Laviano A, Pichard C, Singer P, Van den Berghe G, Wernerman J, Wischmeyer P, Vincent JL

Intravenous fish oil lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

Crit Care 2015: Manzanares W, Langlois PL, Dhaliwal R, Lemieux M, Heyland DK

Should We PERMIT Systematic Underfeeding in All Intensive Care Unit Patients? Integrating the Results of the PERMIT Study in Our Clinical Practice Guidelines

JPEN 2015: Heyland DK

Revised Questionnaire to Assess Barriers to Adequate Nutrition in the Critically ill.

JPEN 2015: Cahill NE, Jiang X, Heyland DK.

Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

Clin Nutr 2015: Heyland DK, Stapleton RD, Mourtzakis M, Hough CL, Morris P, Deutz NE, Colantuoni E, Day A, Prado CM, Needham DM

Enteral glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Care 2015: van Zanten AR, Dhaliwal R, Garrel D, Heyland DK

A multi-faceted, family-centred nutrition intervention to optimise nutrition intake of critically ill patients: The OPTICS feasibility study.

Aust Crit Care 2015: Marshall AP, Wake E, Weisbrodt L, Dhaliwal R, Spencer A, Heyland DK

Enhanced Protein-Energy Provision via the Enteral Route in Critically Ill Patients (PEP uP Protocol): A Review of Evidence

Nutr Clin Pract 2015: Lee ZY, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Airini IN, Heyland DK

Should we stop prescribing metoclopramide as a prokinetic drug in critically ill patients?

Crit Care 2014: van der Meer YG, Venhuizen WA, Heyland DK, van Zanten AR

Enternal Nutrition in Critically III Septic Patients - Less or More?

JPEN 2015: Elke G, Heyland DK

Pharmaconutrition With Selenium in Critically Ill Patients: What Do We Know?

Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2015 : Manzanares W, Langlois PL, Heyland DK

Nutrition therapy for the critically ill surgical patient with aortic aneurismal rupture: defining and improving current practice.

JPEN 2015: Rahman A, Martin C, Heyland DK

Feeding the Critically Ill Patient.

Crit Care Med 2014: McClave SA, Martindale RG, Rice TW, Heyland DK

Implementing a multifaceted tailored intervention to improve nutrition adequacy in critically ill patients: results of a multicenter feasibility study.

Critical Care 2014: Cahill N, Murch L, Cook D, Heyland DK

Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients Associated With the Use of Complex vs Weight-Only Predictive Energy Equations

JPEN 2014: Compher C, Nicolo M, Chittams J, Kang Y, Day AJ, Heyland DK

International observational study of nutritional support in mechanically ventilated patients following major burn injury.

Burns 2014: Czapran A, Headdon W, Deane A, Lange K, Chapman M, Heyland DK

The validation of a questionnaire to assess barriers to enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a multicenter international survey

BMC Health Services Research 2014: Cahill NE, Murch L, Wang M, Day AG, Cook D, Heyland DK

The prevalence of iatrogenic underfeeding in the nutritionally 'At-Risk' critically ill patient: Results of an international, multicenter, prospective study.

Clinical Nutrition 2014: Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Wang M, Day AG

Gastric vs. Small Bowel Feeding in Critically Ill Neurologically Injured Patients: Results of a Multicenter Observational Study

JPEN 2014: Saran D, Brody RA, Stankorb SM, Parrott SJ, Heyland DK

Glutamine and antioxidants in the critically ill patient: A Post hoc analysis of a large-scale randomized trial

JPEN 2014: Heyland DK, Elke G, Cook D, Berger MM et al.

Prevalence, risk factors, clinical consequences and treatment of enteral feed intolerance during critical illness

JPEN 2014: Gungabissoon U, Hacquoil, K, Heyland DK et al.

Development of a Dietary Management Care Map for Metabolic Syndrome

Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 2014: Royall D, Brauer P, Bjorklund L, O'Young O, Tremblay A, Jeejeebhoy K, Heyland D, Dhaliwal R, Klein D, Mutch D.

Parenteral glutamine supplementation in critical illness: A systematic review

Critical Care 2014: Wischmeyer PE, Dhaliwal R, McCall M, Ziegler TR, Heyland DK.

The Canadian Critical Care Nutrition Guidelines in 2013: An update on current recommendations and implementation strategies

Nutr Clin Pract 2014: Dhaliwal, R, Cahill, N, Lemieux M, Heyland DK.

Bedside ultrasound is a practical and reliable measurement tool for assessing quadriceps muscle layer thickness in the critically ill

JPEN 2014: Tilquist M, Leung R, Kutsogiannis J, Heyland DK.

Implementing the PEP uP Protocol in Critical Care Units in Canada: Results of a multicenter, quality improvement study

JPEN 2014: Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Lemieux M, Wang M, Day A.

Lessons Learned From Implementing a Novel Feeding Protocol: Results of a Multicenter Evaluation of Educational Strategies

Nutr Clin Pract 2014: McCall M, Cahill N, Murch L, Bray T, Tanguay T, Heyland DK

The Role of Alternative Lipid Emulsions in Critically Ill Patients: What the Evidence Shows

JPEN 2014: Manzanares W, Langlois PL, Heyland DK

Evaluation of Nutritional Deficits in Adult and Elderly Trauma Patients.

JPEN 2014: Wade C, Kozar C, Bulgar E, Dyer, C, Mourtzakis M, Heyland DK.

Improving the provision of enteral nutrition in the intensive care unit: A description of a multifaceted intervention tailored to overcome local barriers.

Nutr Clin Pract 2014: Cahill NE, Murch L, Cook D, Heyland DK on behalf of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.

Close to recommended caloric and protein intake by enteral nutrition is associated with better clinical outcome of critically ill septic patients: secondary analysis of a large international nutrition database.

Crit Care. 2014: Elke G, Wang M, Weiler N, Day AG, Heyland DK.

The effects of different intravenous fat emulsions on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients.

Crit Care Med 2014: Edmunds CE, Brody RA, Parrott JS, Stankorb SM, Heyland DK.

Development and Psychometric Properties of a Questionnaire to Assess Barriers to Feeding Critically Ill Patients

Implementation Science 2013: Cahill NE, Day AG, Cook D, Heyland DK.

Residual gastric volume and risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia

JAMA 2013: Elke G, Heyland D.

Role of glutamine supplementation in critical illness given the results of the REDOXS study

JPEN 2013: Heyland DK, Dhaliwal RD.

Enhanced protein-energy provision via the enteral route feeding protocol in critically ill patients: results of a cluster randomized trial.

Crit Care Med 2013: Heyland DK, Murch L, Cahill N, McCall M, Muscedere J, Stelfox T et al.

Driving perioperative nutrition quality improvement processes forward!

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2013: Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Cahill NE, et al.

Critical care nutrition support research: lessons learned from recent trials.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013: Heyland DK.

Clinical evidence for pharmaconutrition in major elective surgery.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2013: Braga M, Wischmeyer PE, Drover J, Heyland DK.

Skeletal muscle predicts ventilator-free days, ICU-free days, and mortality in elderly ICU patients.

Crit Care 2013: Moisey LL, Mourtzakis M, Heyland DK et al.

Glutamine and antioxidants in critically ill patients.

N Engl J Med 2013: Heyland DK, Wischmeyer PE, Day AG, Canadian Clinical Care Trials Group.

Does artificial nutrition improve outcome of critical illness? An alternative view point!

Critical Care 2013: Heyland DK, Wischmeyer P.

Nutrition therapy for the critically ill surgical patient with aortic aneurysmal rupture: defining and improving current practice.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2013: Rahman A, Martin C, Heyland DK.

Comparisons between intragastric and small intestinal delivery of enteral nutrition in the critically ill: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Care 2013: Deane AM, Dhaliwal R, Heyland DK et al.

Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions in the critically ill: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2014: Manzanares W, Dhaliwal R, Jurewitsch B, Heyland DK et al.

Alternative lipid emulsions in the critically ill: a systematic review of the evidence.

Int Care Med 2013: Manzanares W, Dhaliwal R, Jurewitsch B, Stapleton RD, Jeejeebhoy KN, Heyland DK.

A randomized trial of glutamine and antioxidants in critically ill patients.

N Engl J Med 2013: Heyland DK, Muscedere J, Wischmeyer P, Cook D, Jones G, Albert M, Elke G, Berger MM, Day AG for the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.

Pharmaconutrition with antioxidant micronutrients in the critically ill: The time has come!

Nutrition 2013: Manzanares W, Heyland DK.

Probiotics in the critically ill: A systematic review of the randomized trial evidence.

Crit Care Med 2012: Petrof E, Dhaliwal R, Manzanares W, Johnstone J, Cook D, Heyland DK.

Hypoglycemia and risk of death in critically ill patients.

N Engl J Med 2012: Finfer S, Liu B, Chittock DR, Norton R, Heyland DK et al and the NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators.

A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing early nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critical illness.

Crit Care Med 2012: Davies AR, Morrison SS, Bailey MJ, Bellomo R, Cooper DJ, Doig GS, Finfer SR, Heyland DK, for the ENTERIC Study Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group.

If the soup tastes bad, it doesn't mean the potatoes are the culprit.

Crit Care Med 2012: Manzanares W, Heyland DK.

Nutritional practices and their relationship to clinical outcomes in critically ill children - An international multicenter cohort study.

Crit Care Med 2012: Mehta NM, Bechard L, Cahill N, Heyland DK et al.

Antioxidants micronutrients in the critically ill: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Critical Care 2012: Manzanares W, Dhaliwal R, Jiang X, Murch L, Heyland DK.

Optimizing nutrition in Intensive Care Units: Empowering critical care nurses to be effective agents of change.

Am J Crit Care 2012: Marshall A, Cahill N, Gramlich L, Alberda C, MacDonald G, Heyland DK.
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